Texas College Mathematics Journal
Vol. 2 (2005), pp. 1-9.
MSC (2000): Primary 97 - 02
Key words: Subtractive process, Kaprekar constant, unique terminations
Abstract: Subtractive black holes and black loops are generalizations of Kaprekar's constants. When the subtractive Kaprekar routine is applied to an n-digit number a termination in the form of a black hole or black loop is reached. If all n-digit numbers for a specific value of n, other than numbers where all digits are the same, result in the same black hole then that number is a Kaprekar constant. The process and its results provide a rich environment for conjecture and proof.
Mathematics & Computer Science Division, South Carolina Governor's School for Science & Mathematics, SC
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Received by Editor: April 18, 2004 and, in revised form August 3,
Posted: August 17, 2005.
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